A recent study by York University researchers suggests an innovative artificial intelligence (AI) technique they developed is considerably more effective than the human eye when it comes to predicting therapy outcomes in patients with brain metastases. The team hopes the new research and technology could eventually lead to more tailored treatment plans and better health outcomes for cancer patients.
“This is a sophisticated and comprehensive analysis of MRIs to find features and patterns that are not usually captured by the human eye,” says York Research Chair Ali Sadeghi-Naini, associate professor of biomedical engineering and computer science in the Lassonde School of Engineering, and lead on the study.
“We hope our technique, which is a novel AI-based predictive method of detecting radiotherapy failure in brain metastasis, will be able to help oncologists and patients make better informed decisions and adjust treatment in a situation where time is of the essence.”
Previous studies have shown that using standard practices, such as MRI imaging — assessing the size, location — and number of brain metastases — as well as the primary cancer type and overall condition of the patient, oncologists are able to predict treatment failure (defined as continued growth of the tumour) about 65 per cent of the time. The researchers created and tested several AI models and their best one had an 83 per cent accuracy.
Brain metastases are a type of cancerous tumour that develops when primary cancers in the lungs, breasts, colon or other parts of the body are spread to the brain via the bloodstream or lymphatic system. While there are various treatment options, stereotactic radiotherapy is one of the more common, with treatment consisting of concentrated doses of radiation targeted at the area with the tumour.
“Not all of the tumours respond to radiation — up to 30 per cent of these patients have continued growth of their tumour, even after treatment,” Sadeghi-Naini says. “This is often not discovered until months after treatment via follow-up MRI.”
This delay is time patients with brain metastases cannot afford, as it is a particularly debilitating condition with most people succumbing to the disease between three months to five years after diagnosis. “It’s very important to predict therapy response even before that therapy begins,” Sadeghi-Naini continues.
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